Year Founded: 1810
Chile is the southernmost country in the world. The Taiwanese like to call it “the Ribbon Country” due to its long narrow shape. Its ranking on the Human Development Index is the highest in South America. Chile, the world’s leading copper producer by far, produces more than the total of the second, third, and fourth largest producers combined, accounting for 1/3 of the world’s total production. Chile was under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. Although he implemented economic liberalization, his dictatorship also left thousands of people dead or missing. In recent years, people have been calling for a constitutional amendment, hoping for a more equal society. Chile has made territorial claims to land in Antarctica.