Year Founded: 1924
Nestled between China and Russia in East Asia, Mongolia is the second largest landlocked state in the world after Kazakhstan.
In 1924, it became the second socialist country in the world when it gained independence after secession from the Republic of China with the support of Russia. A revolution broke out in 1990 and transformed Mongolia into the current democratic republic.
Sandwiched between China and Russia for a long time, Mongolia adopts the third neighbor foreign policy as a way to seek more diplomatic space beyond China and Russia but still has a weak international presence. Its signing up for the Belt and Road Initiative led to the influx of Chinese migrant workers and the country is now experiencing a huge surge of anti-China sentiment.
The country’s territory is covered by grassland with little tillable land. It is a sovereign state with the lowest population density in the world.