The two neighboring countries of Armenia and Azerbaijan each have the same two enclaves in their respective national territories, a rather peculiar state. One such enclave is the region of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan, which is officially recognized as part of the Azerbaijan Autonomous Region but is in fact ruled by the ethnic Armenians. In 1988, the council of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region voted to unite with the Republic of Armenia. Azerbaijan sent troops into the region and thus set off the first Nagorno-Karabakh War. A peace deal was signed with mediation from Russia. The war caused the displacement of a million people yet sovereign control over the Nagorno-Karabakh region remained unchanged as a result of the conflict.
In 2020, war raged again in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenia sought help from Russia while Azerbaijan received military support from Islamic Turkey. After six weeks of war and over 5,000 people dead, Armenia accepted Azerbaijan’s ceasefire conditions, which was in fact a defeat. The Armenian army withdrew completely from the region of Nagorno-Karabakh with the area designated to remain under the joint custody of Russia and Turkey for 5 years until autonomy is restored. The Armenian Prime Minister Pashinyan resigned the following year.