Year of Establishment: 2007
Quad is an informal strategic dialogue initiated by the former Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe and supported by the United States, Australia, and India. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe intended to establish an “Asian Arc of Democracy” through Quadrilateral which is generally perceived as an act to curb China’s expanding economic influence and military power. Quad regularly carries out Malabar naval exercises. It began as an exercise between India and the United States and countries like Singapore, Australia, and Japan later got involved. The site of the exercise also extended from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
In recent years, members of the Quad subsequently have fallen out with China and their intention to block China at sea has become increasingly explicit. Following the 2020 exercises, American secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, proposed that Quad can be converted into an “Asian NATO” and was criticized by the Foreign Ministry of China as trumpeting the Cold War mentality.