弗拉迪米爾·諾羅夫 Vladimir Imamovich Norov（烏茲別克）
Year of Establishment: 2001
Simply referred to as the SCO, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization’s headquarters is based in Beijing. It was named after Shanghai simply because the organization flaunts “Shanghai spirit” as its principle of member relations. The SCO set up a regional organization for dialogue in the Eurasian region to respond to shared security challenges and threats. These threats include terrorism, cyber terrorism, separatism, extremism, transnational organized crime, and illicit drug trafficking. The organization is also open to discussions on trade and other topics.
After India and Pakistan joined in 2017, the number of SCO members rose to eight, accounting for 25% of the global economy and 45% of the global population. What’s more, China, India, Russia and Pakistan are nuclear powers. China and Russia can even exercise veto power in the UN Security Council. Therefore, the SCO has been regarded as a counter-NATO tool for China and Russia even though the official statement emphasized that the organization is not a closed military and political group and denied the claim that it’s NATO’s counterpart. Putin revealed in 2021 that there are currently 16 countries waiting to join the SCO. However, discordance also exists among member states: China and Russia fight over leadership; bitter relations exist between India and Pakistan; Turkey and Russia don’t see eye to eye. As a result, the SCO has not yet reached any important agreements.