全名為絲綢之路經濟帶和21 世紀海上絲綢之路， 英文為The Belt and Road Initiative。由中國國家主席習近平於2013 年提出的區域經濟合作戰略，旨在強化中國和亞洲、歐洲，乃至於非洲的合作關係。目前已有超過141 個國家
The full name of the initiative is the “Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road” in Chinese and the “Belt and Road Initiative” in English. It is a regional economic cooperation strategy proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013, aiming to strengthen the partner relations between China, Asia, Europe, and even Africa. More than 141 countries across five continents have already signed Belt and Road cooperation documents with China at the moment. Even Italy, a G7 country, signed up, too.
In recent years, Western countries have condemned China for setting up a debt trap for developing countries through the Belt and Road Initiative. The Belt and Road development projects usually involve large-scale infrastructure building such as airports, ports, transnational oil pipelines, and railways. They not only fail to meet local needs, but also burden those participating countries with hefty foreign debts because of the high cost of construction. Moreover, as these construction projects were all carried out by Chinese companies and Chinese laborers, they fail to effectively create employment opportunities in participating countries. As of 2021, many countries of the initiative have expressed the need to suspend the development of the Belt and Road projects. For example, the double-track railway in Bangladesh, the Hambantota International Port in Sri Lanka, and the Myitsone Dam in Myanmar have all been suspended.
In addition to the One Belt One Road initiative featuring infrastructure construction, China has extended the same concept to the Arctic Circle and 5G infrastructure in recent years, and proposed the “Polar Silk Road” and “Digital Silk Road” strategies, all motivated by the desire to help Chinese companies expand overseas.